Last updated on July 29th, 2023 at 10:16 am
The Munchkin Cat is a unique breed of cat that has become increasingly popular in recent years. But, the debate surrounding the ethics of breeding Munchkin cats continues to rage on – is it humane to deliberately breed cats with abnormally short legs?
Currently, there is no evidence that responsible breeding of Munchkin cats is less ethical than breeding other breeds or species with abnormally short legs. However, the ethical aspect of whether any of these breeds should continue to exist is subjective and up to individual interpretation.
In this article, we will explore the various arguments for and against breeding Munchkin cats and ultimately leave the decision up to you. Join us as we contemplate what it means to make ethical choices in the world of cat breeding.
Origins Of The Munchkin Cat Breed
The origins of the Munchkin cat breed trace back to Louisiana in 1983, when a woman named Sandra Hochenedel rescued a pregnant cat with unusually short legs. The cat, which she named “Blackberry,” went on to have her litter of kittens which included a male kitten that also had short legs.
Hochenedel and other cat breeders recognized the potential of these cats, and began developing the breed. Because there were only two of these cats to begin with, outcrossing with other cat breeds was necessary to introduce genetic diversity.
It quickly became evident that the desired short-legged trait, which resulted from a genetic mutation, was passed on from parent to kitten in a autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, meaning that one copy of the gene from either parent is enough to produce the trait.
This meant that even when outcrossing was done, some of the resulting kittens would have short legs and were then able to pass it on to the next generation. This made easier for breeders to replicate the trait and develop the Munchkin cat breed.
[Note: If you are interested in learning more about the genetics underlying the Munchkin cat’s short legs, we encourage you to read our article on the subject which can be found here.]
Over time, cat fancier organizations recognized the Munchkin breed. The International Cat Association (TICA) granted Munchkin cats experimental breed status in 1994, and they achieved full recognition in 2003.
The breed has since been also acknowledged by various organizations, including but not limited to the American Cat Association, the Australian Cat Federation, and the World Cat Federation. However, some cat breed associations have refused to recognize them due to their position on the ethics of breeding Munchkin cats.
Why Is Breeding Munchkin Cats Controversial?
Despite the popularity of the breed, the ethics of breeding Munchkin cats continues to be a controversial topic. One concern is that the health and wellbeing of these cats may be compromised by their short legs.
Leg length discrepancy in any species can cause difficulty in movement, which in turn can lead to spinal issues such as disc disease or arthritis at an earlier age than average. This shorter lifespan also raises concerns about animal welfare.
Another concern is that as the Munchkin’s popularity has increased, so have unethical breeding practices and inbreeding. When breeds are created by mating generations of closely related cats, this can lead to an accumulation of genetic diseases or other inheritable health problems.
However, the Munchkin is not the only breed that has short legs, although it is probably the most recent one on the scene. So is the continued existence and propagation of the Munchkin breed any more or less ethical than that of other breeds?
Other Animal Breeds Resulting From Genetic Mutations
The Munchkin cat isn’t the only species to have been selectively bred from a spontaneous mutation. For example, the Dachshund, an iconic dog breed whose roots go back as far as the 17th century, was bred from a genetic mutation that resulted in miniaturization of its legs.
But whereas the Munchkin genetic mutation occurs on the UGDH gene, the mutation resulting in short-legged dogs like the Dachshund and Corgi breeds comes from the retrogene insertion of gene FGF4.
Retrogene insertion is a situation where an extra gene has been inserted into a chromosome, seemingly at random. In dogs, this genetic mutation is known to occur on chromosomes 8 and 12. Some dogs may have one or the other of these two mutations, and some may have both – a condition that results in extra-short legs.
Similarly, the Basset Hound, another distinctive breed known for its short stature. This breed’s short legs also result from the same genetic mutation seen in the Dachshund.
And then we have the toy and miniature dog breeds. These tiny canines are a result of a mutation affecting the expression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene. This mutation has been detected in the DNA of canids dating back over 50,000 years ago, yet it was the man’s deliberate selection for small size that propagated this mutation to create the breeds we see today.
These are just a few examples of humans deliberately selecting for certain genetic mutations to create new breeds of animals. This practice is not uncommon at all, and in fact it is the foundation for all breeding programs – selection for desired traits.
The Munchkin Cat Ethical Controversy – Is It Inhumane To Breed Cats With Short Legs?
As already touched on above, the controversy around the ethics of breeding Munchkin cats is that it is inhumane, as their short legs result in pain, reduced quality of life and shortened lifespan. But, is this true?
The truth is, the jury is still out on this. There have yet to be conclusive studies that show that short-legged cats are more prone to health problems than other cats. Similarly, there has been no evidence of a decreased lifespan found in Munchkin cats who were bred for good temperament and physical conformation.
In fact, most breeders report that Munchkin cats have just as long and healthy a lifespan as other cats, with the same or better quality of life.
Let’s contrast this with short-legged dog breeds. Here, there is more evidence to suggest that short-legged dogs can be prone to joint pain and an earlier onset of arthritis due to the strain on their joints.
In the Dachshund breed, for example, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a well-recognized health problem. In extreme cases, this can lead to paralysis due to compression of the spinal cord.
IVDD is related to the same genetic mutation that results in the Dachshund’s short legs, specifically when the retrogene insertion of gene FGF4 occurs on chromosome 12. This suggests that the breed’s short legs may be at least somewhat responsible for this health problem.
This is not the only health problem that Dachshund’s are prone to that are related to their genetics and their short legs. And yet, while some ethicists would argue that breeding Dachshunds is wrong, there is no widespread outrage decrying the practice and demanding an end to the breed.
Is It Ethical To Breed Munchkin Cats?
In this author’s opinion, responsible breeding of Munchkin cats is no less ethical than the continued breeding of other species and breeds with abnormally short legs. The question of whether the continued existence of any of these breeds is ethical is another question that each must decide for themselves.
There is certainly room for unethical breeding practices with Munchkin cats, just as there is in any other breed.
Constant breeding of Munchkin-to-Munchkin without outcrossing to increase genetic diversity may enhance and propagate unknown genetic diseases and is therefore discouraged.
Some unethical breeders may also select for extreme short legs, a practice which is condemned by all reputable breeders. Ultra-short legs in any animal can result in ambulation difficulties, as well as an increased risk for bone and joint problems.
Ultimately, the decision of whether to breed Munchkin cats or not is a personal one. If done responsibly and with awareness of both the risks and benefits, then there seems to be no reason why responsible breeding should be shamed or criticized.
At the end of the day, the ethics of breeding Munchkin cats – or any other species for that matter – is a personal decision and one that each must make for themselves.
As a breeder, it is important to be aware of the risks and potential health problems that can come with breeding cats, or any other species, with abnormally short legs. Responsible breeders should focus on selecting for good temperament and physical conformation, while avoiding extremes in leg length.
As a potential Munchkin cat owner, it is important to do your research and be aware of the ethical issues surrounding this breed. Make sure that you purchase from a responsible breeder who is following all breeding guidelines and practices.
No matter which side of the table you’re on, Munchkin cats are undeniably beautiful creatures with plenty of purrsonality to spare. And, while the ethical debate may rage on, one thing is certain – Munchkins make for some pawsome companions!